Plum Eurasia: how to grow an early and winter-hardy variety
Plum Eurasia is an early ripe interspecific hybrid. The tree resists frost well, typical for central Russia. The large and tasty fruits of this plum can be stored for a long time.
Description of Eurasia plum variety
Eurasia (or Eurasia 21) is an early variety of plum. It is considered a complex hybrid, since East Asian, American, yellow, Chinese, homemade plums and cherry plums "participated" in its appearance. Due to its high winter hardiness, the variety can be grown in the Moscow region and the Leningrad region.
The tree is tall, up to 6 m, spreading crown, medium thickening. The leaves are large, elongated, pointed, dense, dark green, along the edge of the leaf are notches. The bark of the trunk and branches is brown-gray.
Feature of the variety: the thickness of the trunk grows slowly, but long branches grow very quickly, which makes the tree unstable to strong winds.
Average fruit weight of Eurasia - 35-40 g
The flowers of the Eurasia plum are small, abundant flowering.
The fruits are quite large (35 g - average weight, 50 g - maximum). Rounded, burgundy in ripeness, with a clear waxy coating. The skin is thin. The pulp is yellow-orange, fleshy, slightly loose, fragrant, juicy. The taste of plum is sweet and sour. The stone is medium in size, does not separate well from the pulp.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
|High yield||Large tree height|
|Early maturity (yields a harvest 3-5 years after planting)||The cultivar needs pollinators|
|High winter hardiness||Fast growing branches require frequent pruning|
|Pleasant taste, attractive aroma||Susceptibility to clasterosporium disease|
|Large fruits||Loose pulp|
|Fruits can be kept fresh for a long time|
The quality of the plum harvest largely depends on how responsibly you approached planting the tree.
It is better to buy seedlings in a nursery. The tree should have a well-developed root system without dry and damaged roots, trunks and branches - whole and resilient.
Choosing a place for a plum
For Eurasia plums, medium loamy or clayey soil with neutral acidity is suitable (acidic soil will cause poor yields). The place should be sunny and protected from the wind. A tall tree and long branches of a plum tree can break under the pressure of air currents.
If the Eurasia plum grows on the site alone, then it is unlikely to bear fruit. The fact is that the variety is self-sterile, that is, requiring mandatory pollination by other trees. The following varieties can serve as pollinators for Eurasia:
- Soviet Renklode;
- Collective farm renklod;
- Renklode is fruitful;
- Memory of Timiryazev;
- Volga beauty;
- Early ripening red.
It should be borne in mind that the space between trees must be at least 3.5 m.
Planting a tree
It is best to plant the Eurasia plum tree in early spring, after the snow has completely melted.
- The planting pit should be prepared in the fall. Its dimensions are: depth - 70–90 cm, diameter - 80 cm.
- You can add organic and mineral fertilizers: 3 buckets of humus, 250 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium sulfate, 300 g of lime.
- In the spring, add 2 more buckets of compost, 30 g of carbamide, 250 g of ash.
- Thoroughly loosen the bottom of the pit, form a mound.
- Place a peg and a seedling.
- Sprinkle with earth, humus or peat.
The support is placed in the pit along with the seedling
- The root collar should be 3-5 cm above the soil level.
- Tie a tree to a stake.
- Pour 20-30 liters of water.
- Cut the seedling by measuring 60–70 cm from the ground.
After planting, the seedling is pruned without leaving leaves on it.
- Mulch the space around the trunk with peat or humus.
Peat or humus can be used as mulch.
Video: features of planting a fruit tree
Care for Eurasia
Watering for plums is required, this tree reacts negatively to lack of moisture. In drought, the fruit may crack. Excess water is also undesirable - the leaves will turn yellow, and the tops of the shoots will die.
Adult plants are watered once every 2 weeks (about 60 liters of water per tree). Young people need watering a little more often - once every 10 days (about 40 liters of water). Of course, these periods are affected by the amount of natural precipitation. After the procedure, the soil around the trunk is loosened.
Thanks to the fertilizers laid in the planting pit, it is not necessary to feed the plum for the first 2 years of life. Then the tree is fertilized four times per season.
Table: Plum dressing regime
|Before flowering||ammonium nitrate (applied to the soil during digging)||20 g per 1 m2|
|During flowering||2 tbsp. l. urea and 2 tbsp. potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water||25 l for 1 tree|
|After flowering||3 tbsp. nitrophosphate for 10 liters of water||30 l for 1 tree|
|End of September||every 3-4 years - liming||300-400 g per 1 m2|
|during digging into the soil superphosphate||100 g|
Given the rapid growth of Eurasia plum branches, pruning will have to be carried out in autumn (mid-September) and spring (late March - early April). And the first 2 years are also in the summer (in June). In this case, the following points must be taken into account:
- during the first autumn pruning, the main trunk is shortened by 1/3 (this will stimulate the growth of side shoots), the remaining shoots - by 2/3 of the length;
- in an adult tree, the main branches should be directed in different directions and be at least 20 cm apart from each other;
- in summer pruning, the tops of the lateral shoots are removed by 15–20 cm; the central trunk is not cut off;
- in autumn and spring, all old branches are subject to removal, as well as those damaged by diseases and pests, growing deeper into the crown, frozen and broken;
- without pruning, the central trunk can grow up to 6 m high, it is shortened to make it easier to care for the tree and harvest.
Places of cuts must be treated with garden varnish, cut branches burned.
Video: pruning a young plum
Preparing for winter
Plum Eurasia frost-resistant, able to withstand up to -20aboutC. However, this does not mean that preparation for winter should be neglected, especially when it comes to young trees. The plum stump can be wrapped in burlap, nonwoven fabric or paper. When snow falls, it is thrown in a thick layer over the trunk circle to protect the root system. Snow from the branches of mature trees should be shaken off periodically.
Tree trunks can be wrapped in material that saves the bark from frost
Disease and pest control
Table: How to deal with diseases and pests
|Diseases / pests||How does it manifest||Prophylaxis||Fight|
|Plum aphid||Aphids live on the underside of leaves. The leaves damaged by it become discolored along the veins. Plums are covered with a bloom of sooty mushrooms. Shoots are delayed in development, the yield becomes smaller, the winter hardiness of the tree decreases.|
|Plum sawfly||The damage is caused by the larvae of the plum sawfly, which damage the fruits of the plum. Sometimes they destroy the crop almost completely.|
|Moth||The caterpillars of the moth cobweb stick around the place where they are going to penetrate the fruit. In the stone of the plum, they eat away the kernel The growth of damaged fruits stops, they fall off. One track can damage several drains.|
|Clasterosporium disease (perforated spot)||The causative agent is a fungus, the spores of which spread downwind over long distances. If the spore gets on a wet leaf or plant shoot, infection occurs. Many holes are formed on the leaf plate. The leaves turn yellow and fall off quickly in the middle of summer. It will be difficult for such trees to endure wintering.|
|Fruit rot||Rot begins with a small brown spot on the fruit and grows rapidly. The pulp becomes watery, inedible. After a few days, light spots appear on the fetus - the sporulation pads of the fungus.|
Photo gallery: plum diseases and pests
After planting the seedling, you will have to wait 3-5 years before the first harvest. From a tree over 8 years old, you can collect 40-50 kg of fruit.
From the abundance of fruits, the plum branches bend to the ground. In this case, you need to help them - put supports.
The early flowering of Eurasia allows you to taste the first fruits in late July and early August. Plums do not ripen well, so they are harvested in several stages.
Plum Eurasia is harvested in several stages
If the fruits are removed from the tree about a week before ripeness, they can be stored at 0 ° C for about 3 weeks.
Eurasia belongs to table varieties, plums are consumed fresh, and are also used for the preparation of dried fruits, mashed potatoes, and jam. The juice from this variety is delicious.
Plums can be frozen, but the fruits become more watery and sour.
Reviews of gardeners about the Eurasia plum
The fruits of the Eurasia plum variety are delicious! The pulp is dense, fleshy, juicy. Taste is difficult to define in one word - for example, sweet. Yes, sweet. But there is a special bouquet in it that differs from other varieties. A slight sourness appearing at the end gives the taste to a thin skin. In ripe plums, the stone is easily separated, almost dry, and at the same time the fruits do not wrinkle, and the juice does not flow out. And how fragrant these plums are, just incredible! While they were being carried in the trunk, the aroma filled the entire interior of the car. I kept the harvest in the apartment on the balcony. So the plum spirit not only penetrated into our apartment, but also made itself felt to the neighbors from four sides.
Eurasia blooms very early when it is still relatively cold. I have it bloomed profusely every spring, but did not tie the fruit. In addition to her, there were on the site Renklod Kolkhozny, Volzhskaya beauty, Mirnaya. Once there was an early, hot spring, and with the same pollinators, all the plum was in fruits. This was the first and last harvest. After abundant fruiting, she immediately froze to death.
Eurasia has a very narrow spectrum of possible pollinators. My friend has a red Skorospelka in the garden. He is very pleased with the yield of E-21 (in particular, after this winter and according to the results of a super-hot summer). Another advantage of this variety is its high winter hardiness.
Plum varieties Eurasia without pruning can grow into a tree of quite impressive size. Therefore, crown formation is one of the main activities for caring for this plant. The fruits of Eurasia are not devoid of sourness, however, there is also a lot of sweetness in them.
The Stanley plum variety was bred in America at the beginning of the 20th century. It quickly became known all over the world. The USSR entered it into the State Register only in the early 80s. Since then, this late variety has become widespread in our country, especially in the south.
The Stanley plum is also known as Stanley. The discrepancies are due to the English word Stanley.
The tree reaches a height of 3 m, the most intensive growth - in the first 5 years of life. The crown is round. The bark flakes off and cracks a little. Purple thorns can be found on young shoots. Leaves are medium-sized (7–8 cm), bright green, rounded, glossy, with jagged edges. The crown is not thickened.
Flowering begins in mid-April. White flowers about 3 cm in diameter. On a bud - 1 or 2 flowers.
Stanley's fruits are very large
Fruits are ovoid, dark blue, without edges, with a waxy coating. For plums, their mass is rather big - 40-50 g. The pulp is firm, yellowish, medium juicy, sweet. The stone is large, it separates well.
Table: advantages and disadvantages of Stanley
|Large fruits||Demanding soil|
|High winter hardiness||Low resistance to moniliosis and plum aphids|
|Resistant to red spot and scarring|
|High yield||Drought intolerance|
Video: about Stanley plum
Plum variety Yakhontovaya: description with photo
The plum was brought to VSTISP in Moscow by Kh.K. Enikeev, S.N. Satarova when crossing the varieties Eurasia 21 and Smolinka, it is recommended for the Central zone of Russia.
The tree is vigorous (up to 5.5 m), with a compact spherical crown of medium density. Shoots are straight, brown. Leaves are elongated-elliptical, pointed, light green, matte, smooth with a finely serrated edge. Fruits are round, bright yellow with a slight waxy coating, large (30–35 g). The pulp is yellow, tender, juicy. The stone is medium, easily separated from the pulp. Dessert berry taste, sweet and sour, tasting score - 5. Fruits contain: sugar - 9.0%, acid - 3.5%, vitamin C - 14.5 mg%.
Plum Yakhontovaya is prized for its delicious sweet and sour fruits
Begins fruiting in the third year after planting, bears fruit regularly on annual shoots, bouquet twigs and spurs from the beginning of August. Average yield is 50 kg per plant, maximum - 70 kg.
Yakhontovaya has a fairly high frost resistance of wood and flower buds. From 1991 to 2005, it tolerated frosts of -33 ° C in the middle and end of winter. The variety is characterized by resistance to drought and high resistance to fungal diseases. The plum is partially self-fertile, pollinating trees are required. The use of the plant is in landscaping, landscaping, the creation of orchards.
Advantages and disadvantages
Plum Yakhontovaya has a lot of positive qualities, and shortcomings can be easily corrected.
|High yields consistently||Lack of keeping fruit|
|Resistance of flowers to recurrent frost||Partial self-fertility|
|Large fruits with excellent quality||High growth|
|Resistance to a number of diseases, including|
gray rot and clotterosporia
|Tolerates dry periods well|
|High frost resistance - easily survives|
snowless winters with frosts at 30 ° С
Plum flowers Yakhontovaya is not afraid of frost
Reviews about plum varieties Eurasia
In general, Eurasia is an excellent variety of plum for a garden plot. It is unpretentious, frost-resistant, with proper care and pollination, it bears a lot and tasty fruit. Here's what gardeners write about this variety:
The fruits of the Eurasia plum variety are delicious! The pulp is dense, fleshy, juicy. Taste is difficult to define in one word - for example, sweet. Yes, sweet. But there is a special bouquet in it that differs from other varieties. A slight sourness appearing at the end is given to the taste by a thin skin. In ripe plums, the stone is easily separated, almost dry, and at the same time the fruits do not wrinkle, and the juice does not flow out. And how fragrant these plums are, just incredible! While they were being carried in the trunk, the aroma filled the entire interior of the car. I kept the harvest in the apartment on the balcony. So the plum spirit not only penetrated into our apartment, but also made itself felt to the neighbors from four sides.
Eurasia, blooms very early when it is still relatively cold. I have it bloomed profusely every spring. Once there was an early, hot spring and all the plum was in fruit.
Eurasia has a very narrow spectrum of possible pollinators. A friend of mine has a red Skorospelka in the garden. He is very pleased with the yield of E-21 (in particular, after this winter and according to the results of a super-hot summer). Another advantage of this variety is its high winter hardiness.
In a region with cold winters, Eurasia 21 is an excellent choice.However, novice gardeners should give preference to the more classic varieties of plum, so as not to doubt the pollinators and to collect, albeit smaller, but stable yields of tasty fruits.