The main methods of dealing with diseases and pests of raspberries
- Agrotechnical methods of disease and pest control
- Biological control method
- Chemical control methods
To obtain high yields of raspberries annually, it is necessary to timely and efficiently carry out measures to protect plants from pests and diseases that cause great damage to its plantings, greatly reduce the yield, worsen the quality of berries, weaken plants, often leading to their death.
Agrotechnical, biological, chemical and other methods are used to protect plants. Among them, the most important place is given to the timely and comprehensive implementation of agrotechnical measures that ensure the normal development of plants and at the same time prevent the spread of pests and diseases. The correct choice of a site, its preparation, the quality of planting material, the selection of varieties resistant to pathogens, the level of agricultural technology when growing plants - all these are powerful preventive and often eradicating means in the fight against pests and diseases.
Agrotechnical methods of disease and pest control
Increasing plant resistance to pathogens is facilitated by scientifically based fertilization... So, application phosphorus-potassium fertilizers significantly reduces the number of insects with a piercing-sucking mouth apparatus (aphids, ticks), which is associated with a change under the influence of these fertilizers in the chemical composition of the plant, which becomes less favorable for feeding pests. A depressing effect on a number of pathogens and nematodes has ammonia forms of nitrogen fertilizers, as well as liming acidic soils.
A significant number of pests and pathogens are destroyed when autumn digging of soil, at mulching plantings with peat or compost with a layer of 8-10 cm.
Amateur gardeners successfully use hand shaking raspberry beetles and raspberry-strawberry weevils on the litter with their subsequent destruction, catch insects that fly into the light at night (moths, moths, leafworms). A large number of beetles, butterflies fall into containers with fermenting molasses, sweet tea with milk, beer, etc., placed between the bushes or not far from them.
It is known that it is easier to prevent a negative effect than to eliminate its consequences later on plantings, especially since the use of pesticides is considered undesirable. That is why it is necessary, on the one hand, to prevent or eliminate sources of infection (at least, to use healthy planting material), and on the other hand, to create conditions under which the plant would quickly take root, grow stronger and itself become involved in the competition for light, moisture, nutrition. ... And in the end, it would realize its potential in the fight against infection.
To prevent the emergence of infection or stop its spread, gardeners need to strictly and timely carry out special agrotechnical measures. These include, in particular:
- growth normalization: removal of weakened and therefore easily infected offspring and replacement shoots;
- cutting of fruiting stems at the very base immediately after harvest;
- preparing plants for overwintering and protecting them in winter;
- timely collection of sick berries and berries damaged by pests;
- destruction of pests and infections in wintering places (including digging the soil);
- removal of all kinds of wintering places: weeds - intermediate hosts of pests;
- shelter of bushes during active settlement and summer of pests with insulators made of film, gauze, non-woven materials.
Agrotechnical measures should minimize mechanical damage to shoots and roots, since wounds serve as a gateway for infections to enter the plant. As a rule, these measures are enough to keep the raspberry plantation healthy and productive for a long time.
Biological control method
Much attention in the fight against pests of raspberries deserves a biological method, the essence of which is the use of natural insects that destroy pests... Especially useful are the seven-line aphid bug ("ladybug"), lacewings, hoverfly larvae, the ridge apanteles, dragonflies, etc. For example, one ladybug beetle can destroy about 5000 aphids during the summer. To attract beneficial insects near the berry, it is advisable to have flowering plants of dill, carrots, anise, coriander, which are readily visited by insects to feed on nectar.
An invaluable service in the fight against garden pests is provided carnivorous birds (tits, starlings, swallows, sparrows, flycatchers, etc.), destroying huge quantities of various caterpillars, larvae, butterflies and beetles. Especially many harmful insects are destroyed by birds while feeding chicks. So, a family of starlings destroys up to 350 caterpillars, beetles, snails a day, and a family of redstart feeds more than 7000 caterpillars to chicks. Tits are especially gluttonous. An adult tit, for example, in one day eats food in a mass equal to its own mass. Considering this, it is necessary in every possible way to attract insectivorous birds to the gardens and protect them, arranging artificial nests for them - birdhouses, titmouses, and in winter do not forget to regularly feed the birds.
In large quantities, garden pests are eaten frogs, toads, hedgehogs and ants.
To combat harmful insects in individual gardens, you can use and biological products - dendrobacillin and lepidocid by spraying plants as pests appear. These preparations do not affect the aroma and taste of the fruit, they are safe for humans, warm-blooded animals and bees.
The biological method of control includes the use of plants that emit special substances — phytoncides, able to some extent to protect berry crops, including raspberries, from some phytopathogenic microorganisms and harmful insects. The most suitable for this purpose are infusions and decoctions of hemp, black elderberry, onion, garlic, tomato, wormwood, chamomile and other plants.
Chemical control methods
Chemical control measures in home gardening can only be used when diseases and pests are excessively spread, and only use those pesticides that are allowed for sale to the public, and strictly follow the instructions, observe safety precautions and use personal protective equipment.
The success of pest and disease control largely depends on knowledge of their distinctive features and symptoms of plant damage, taking this into account it is easier to apply protection methods.
G. Aleksandrova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Apple tree pests
Apple honeydew... The greatest harm is caused not by adult insects, but by their larvae of light green color, which suck juice from leaves, buds, petioles, contaminating them with a sticky white liquid.
Control methods: spraying with 10% karbofos (90 g of the drug per 10 l of water).
Green apple aphid... Its larvae of a greenish-brown color are harmful, also feeding on the sap of leaves, buds, petioles, and contaminating them with a sticky liquid, on which a sooty fungus begins to develop. Plant fruits damaged by aphids become outwardly unattractive. In addition to apple trees, it also damages other fruit trees such as plum, pear, cherry.
Control methods: spraying with 60% nitrafen (300 g of the drug per 10 l of water).
Larvae blood aphid rise in early spring along the trunk to the crown, where they suck the juice from young shoots and branches. In the damaged areas, peculiar tumors appear, the bark rots, and the shoots die.
Control methods: spraying with 60% nitrafen (300 g of powder per 10 liters of water). Plants should be processed before bud break at a temperature of no more than 20 ° C.
Bright orange larvae drilling fruit mite they suck the juice from the leaves, as a result of which they die, and the yield is sharply reduced. In addition to apple trees, it also damages other fruit trees.
Control methods: spraying with 10% karbofos (75 g of the drug per 10 l of water).
Red apple mite and its larvae feed on the sap of apple leaves, which gradually acquire a brownish color and dry out.
Control methods: spraying with 40% DNOC (100 g of the drug per 10 l of water). Plants should be processed before budding at an air temperature of no more than 20 ° C.
Larvae apple comma are born at the end of the flowering period. At first they can move, then they stick to the bark of trees, where they freeze in immobility, covered with shields. In addition to apple trees, it also damages other fruit trees.
Control methods: spraying with 76% oil-oil emulsions of preparations No. 30, 30a, 30c and 30 m (500 g of the preparation per 10 l of water).
Bluish gray caterpillars ringed silkworm at night they feed on leaves, and during the day they gather in large colonies at the fork in the branches and on the trunk. The greatest harm is caused by adult caterpillars, intensively eating the leaves of trees that can die. In addition to apple trees, it also damages other fruit trees.
Control methods: spraying plants with 80% karbofos (20 g per 10 l of water).
Light yellow caterpillars with black dots on the back cause great harm to apple trees apple moththat destroy the leaves. Caterpillars entangle all the leaves on the tree with cobwebs, causing the crop to die.
Control methods: spraying plants before bud break with 60% nitrafen (300 g per 10 l of water). If the moth still settled on the tree, you can re-process it. Remember that the use of chemicals is permissible no more than two times.
Larvae apple fruit sawfly feed on seeds and the central part of the fruit. White larvae overwinter in dense earthen cocoons in the soil at a depth of 15 cm. Each larva damages about 6–7 fruits. Sometimes they can completely destroy the crop.
Control methods: spraying plants during the rosebud period with 80% chlorophos (30 g per 10 l of water). Re-treatment is usually carried out immediately after flowering.
Caterpillars apple moth light pink crawl inside the fruit and feed on seeds and pulp for 30–40 days. Great damage is caused by damage to late-ripening varieties that become unsuitable for storage. About 4 generations of caterpillars are born in one season.
Control methods: spraying trees with 35% fosalon (20 g per 10 l of water).
Apple glass bowl - great harm is caused by its yellowish-white caterpillars, which bite into the bark, forming numerous passages in it. The damaged bark gradually dies off and the tree stops growing.
Control methods: spraying the trunks and main branches with 80% chlorophos (80 g per 10 l of water). Re-processing is usually done after harvest.
Apple blossom beetle... Both adult beetles and larvae that feed on the juice of the kidneys are dangerous, gnawing narrow holes in them. Buds and buds damaged by the flower beetle turn brown and dry quickly.
Control methods: spraying plants with 10% quark (60 g per 10 l of water). If a negative result is obtained, the procedure can be repeated.
Fruit sapwood gnaws winding passages under the bark, which leads to premature drying of trees. The pest settles mainly on weakened trees.
Control methods: spraying the trunks and main branches with 80% chlorophos (80 g per 10 l of water). Re-processing is usually done after harvest.
Apple miner baby moth feeds on the pulp of the leaf, leaving mines on the surface. This leads to a weakening of the tree, which does not form fruit buds.
Control methods: spraying plants immediately after flowering with 20% metaphos (20 g per 10 l of water).
Control raspberry pests with proven methods
If insects appear in your raspberry tree that cause irreparable harm to the stalks of raspberries, you will have to mercilessly cut out all the spoiled shoots and immediately burn them. Pruning is usually carried out in the fall, when the entire crop has already been harvested, or in early spring. When raspberries are affected by stem gall midge, the shoots are cut slightly below the characteristic swellings; in all other cases, it is advisable to cut off the infected stems at the root.
To deal with a common raspberry beetle in the morning, the raspberry bushes are shaken: the beetles fall on a film lying on the ground, from where they are collected and destroyed.
When the buds are formed, the raspberry tree is abundantly sprayed with infusion of tansy in the evenings (for five liters of water, a kilogram of fresh tansy and 350 grams of dried - insist for a day, then boil for half an hour, strain and add cold water to make 10 liters of infusion). In the autumn months, under the raspberry bushes, the soil is dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet, thereby destroying the larvae and beetles that have settled down for the winter.
Pictured pest control
Digging also helps to partially destroy the raspberry fly larvae. To completely get rid of this pest, before the appearance of flowers, raspberries are treated with karbofos or emulsions of drugs "Confidor», «Spark", And the wilting tops of the shoots are cut off and burned every two weeks.
From the spider mite and from the strawberry-raspberry weevil, raspberry bushes are sprayed with fufanon before flowering and after picking berries, or “Spark"And"Confidor". The same measures are taken when raspberries are severely affected by a kidney fly (in addition to pruning damaged stems).
SUMMER PERIOD (from the end of flowering to fruit ripening)
Not all plant pests and diseases appear in gardens in early spring. Some of them, especially pests that damage fruits, attack plants after flowering, during the setting and growth of fruits. With the onset of summer, it is impossible to weaken the fight against pests and diseases of the garden. The main attention should be paid to measures aimed at preserving fruit trees from damage by apple and plum moths, sawflies, scab, fruit rot, coccomycosis and other diseases. Currants and gooseberries should be protected from gooseberry moths, sawflies, American powdery mildew, anthracosis, and raspberries and strawberries from various diseases.
When planning a work plan for the summer period, one should take into account the likelihood of the mass appearance of certain enemies of the garden. If in the past year there was a strong damage to plants by any pest or disease, we can expect their mass appearance next year, especially in the case when during the autumn and spring surveys a significant infection of plants by wintering stages of these pests was revealed. At the same time, it should be taken into account how effectively the spring work was carried out aimed at eliminating the winter and spring stages of such pests as honey pests, aphids, butterfly caterpillars that damage leaves, etc. If the fight against this group was carried out in a timely manner and correctly, their value will be minimized.
Spring and early summer weather conditions can determine the likelihood of a massive outbreak of scab and other fruit tree diseases. In humid and warm years, most types of fungal diseases develop more intensively; dry years restrain their development.
It was noted that massive damage to fruits by caterpillars of the codling moth is usually observed in those cases when the summer of the last year, and especially of the two previous years, was hot and dry.
Plant pest and disease control methods
Measures for the protection of horticultural and garden crops are aimed at reducing the number of dangerous pests and pathogens, preventing their mass reproduction or increasing the resistance of plants to damage and diseases. A set of techniques aimed at destroying pests and pathogens or reducing damage from them is called a system of plant protection measures. It includes organizational and economic measures, agrotechnical, mechanical, biological and chemical methods of control. All these methods are combined with each other, complementing each other.
To the group of organizational and economic activities applies, first of all, to the correct placement of trees on the site. It provides for compliance with the optimal distances between trees, determined by agricultural instructions. For tall varieties, a large feeding area is required (usually 4 × 5 m), for semi-dwarf and dwarf varieties, less. The thickening of the plants is undesirable: the trees interfere with each other by closing their crowns, the work on spraying the trees becomes difficult, and the illumination conditions deteriorate. In addition, thickened plantings are worse blown by the wind.
Varieties of fruit crops of different ripening periods are sprayed with an unequal number of times: summer varieties are less, winter varieties more. Often, different means are used to process them. Therefore, it is advisable to place trees with the same fruit ripening in groups. This will protect summer varieties, especially during the period of ripening and harvesting, from the ingress of pesticides on them when spraying winter varieties.
Planting material for the establishment and renewal of the garden and berry, seedlings and seeds of vegetable and flower crops must be healthy, not infected with pests and diseases. Aphids, leafworms, scale insects, phylloxera, and some pathogens can be brought into the garden with planting material. Therefore, it is better to take planting material not from individuals, but in fruit nurseries.
Sometimes, in order to use the land more fully, "or between the trees, berry bushes, strawberries, and vegetable crops are placed. Such placement can be justified only in the first years after the garden was laid, when there is still no need to spray the trees with pesticides. When spraying, pesticides get on the berries growing under the trees, strawberries, vegetable crops and make them unsuitable or unsuitable for use in food.
Agrotechnical measures with timely and high-quality implementation, they allow to grow strong healthy plants with increased resistance to damage by pests and diseases. They significantly reduce the number of pests and, accordingly, reduce the damage from them. It is advisable to give preference to varieties that are resistant to pests and diseases, if their yield and taste meet the requirements of a gardener. Loosening of the soil, destruction of weeds, moderate fertilization prevent the multiplication of many pests and pathogens. Autumn digging of the soil with careful incorporation of fallen leaves and other plant residues is an effective method of combating apple scab, cabbage moth, spotting, etc. Pruning and burning dry and damaged branches in the garden helps to reduce the number of corrosive arboreal trees, gooseberry aphids, apple glass, raspberry flies and others. Many pests and pathogens of diseases multiply on weeds and are transferred from them to cultivated plants.
Regular weed control reduces the number of cruciferous flea beetles, cabbage moths, white rot of garden crops and many other pests. Timely harvesting of apple fruits reduces their losses from the codling moth, scab. Sowing flowering plants and nectar plants on the site attracts beneficial insects. Feeding flowers on nectar increases their fertility and enhances their beneficial activity.
Mechanical method of struggle includes measures aimed at the physical extermination of harmful insects, and sometimes pathogens, and at creating obstacles to the penetration of pests to the fruit tree or to its crown. The group of these methods includes, for example, removing from branches and burning winter nests of golden-tails and hawthorns, hanging hunting belts on stems, manual collection and destruction of the Colorado potato beetle, cabbage caterpillars, etc.
Biological control method with pests and causative agents of plant diseases is based on the use of their natural enemies against them - predatory and parasitic insects, ticks, insectivorous birds. Viruses, bacteria, fungi are also used, often causing mass death of pests. By the way, parasites are considered to be animals that live on the body or inside other animals - "hosts", feeding on their juices or tissues. Parasites lead their "host" to death when they finish their development. The predator feeds on the victim for a short time, killing it immediately. From predators in gardens and orchards, ladybugs, lacewings, ground beetles, tahini flies, spiders, predatory mites are often found, and from parasites - trichogramma, aphelinus, eupteromalus and other hymenoptera.
Beneficial organisms are used to control pests in a variety of ways. For example, trichogramma is bred in laboratories, and then released into orchards and vegetable gardens in order to combat the codling moth, cabbage whitewash. The predatory mite phytoseiulus is bred and released into greenhouses to combat spider mites on cucumbers. On the garden plot, it is possible to attract parasites and predators and protect them by sowing phacelia, mustard, dill and other nectar plants. Reasonable volume reduction and timing of the use of pesticides will help preserve beneficial insects and mites. A number of bacterial and fungal preparations for pest control are produced by the industry (lepidocid, bitoxibacillin). In order to attract insectivorous birds (tits, flycatchers, starlings) to the gardens, birdhouses and other nest boxes are hung in the gardens.
Chemical control method based on the use of chemicals against pests and diseases: insecticides against insects, acaricides against mites, fungicides against fungal diseases. Chemical preparations can be used by spraying, less often by dusting plants, introducing them into the soil, preparing poisoned baits, sometimes gassing (plants, warehouses, greenhouses, containers), dressing seeds, bulbs and tubers intended for planting. Chemicals are applied to plants using special equipment - sprayers, pollinators. The chemical method is convenient and easy to use. It reliably allows you to protect the crop. However, pesticides are not harmless to humans and domestic animals, which requires careful handling. In addition, not only harmful, but also beneficial organisms die from pesticides. Accumulating in fruits and other parts of plants, pesticides can be dangerous to humans. Getting into the air, soil, water, together with fertilizers and herbicides, they are a source of environmental pollution. Therefore, in recent years, pesticides tend to be used less often, only in the presence of a significant number of pests, when it is impossible to reduce their number by other methods. Scientists have developed thresholds of harmfulness, that is, such quantities of certain pests have been established at which and above which treatment with pesticides becomes expedient. In order to obtain a higher effect and to avoid burns of the sprayed plants, when using pesticides, it is necessary to adhere to the recommended concentration instructions.
Removal and burning of wintering nests of hawthorn, goldtail, and dry (mummified) fruits
From the high parts of the crowns, hawthorn nests and dry fruits are removed using a pole, at the end of which simple devices in the form of paws, slingshots, brushes, etc. are put on. When collecting goldtail nests, gloves should be used to avoid skin irritation with poisonous caterpillar hairs.
Attraction of tits and other insectivorous birds to gardens, nesting in hollows, is carried out by hanging titmates and birdhouses near the garden and on buildings in the garden. Usually, artificial nests are hung up in early spring by the time the snow melts. It is better to hang titmouses in the fall. In winter, tits will take refuge in them from bad weather and may remain nesting in summer.
During the winter, especially with heavy snowfall and icy conditions, it is necessary to feed the tits and other insectivorous birds that winter in their permanent habitats. Birds are fed with seeds of sunflower, watermelon, hemp, bread crumbs, various grain waste, bones with leftover meat, pieces of unsalted bacon, dry berries, etc.
Folk remedies for these pests
Decoction of paprika (bitter). 0.5 kg of raw or 250 g of dry fruits are boiled in 5 liters of water in a sealed container, infused for two days, filtered and diluted 1 to 7. Effective against caterpillars, slugs.
Infusion of garlic... 200 g of crushed cloves are infused in 1 liter of water in a tightly sealed container, filtered, then 30 ml of the infusion is diluted in 1 liter of water. Preventive treatments scare away scoop, earwigs
Dusting plants and soil with ash, tobacco dust
Wormwood decoction. 1 kg of grass is boiled for 1-5 minutes in a small amount of water, filtered, diluted to 10 liters with water and used to control caterpillars.
We follow the rules
For overhead treatments, knapsack, hand-held sprayers are used.
The best results are obtained by careful small-drop "irrigation" of the leaves from below and from above.
Insecticide treatment is carried out in the morning or evening, in cloudy but not rainy weather. In this case, the temperature should be at least 14 degrees, otherwise the drug solution will not be absorbed into the plant tissue.
Do not spray at noon in sunny weather to avoid leaf burns.
Working solutions not consumed during the day are not used for treatments.
After work, sprayers are thoroughly rinsed with water.
© Author: Natalia DISHUK Cand. biol. sciences.
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A couple of years ago, strange beetles with a tail, somewhat similar to cockroaches, appeared in a greenhouse with peppers. There was no escape from them, they were destroying the vegetables on the vine. The diet of this pest included stems, leaves and fruits of horticultural and horticultural crops. When an experienced gardener came to my dacha, he immediately recognized the pest, saying that these were earwigs.
To expel these pests, first of all, it is necessary to put things in order in the areas littered with waste, get rid of the felled trees. The compost heaps must be removed outside the garden. After all, it is there that these pests most often settle.
Then spread wet rags and old cans over the area. Every other day, pick them up and pour boiling water over the assembled earwigs. Spray the beds with peppers (only the ground, not the plants!) Spray the onion-garlic concentrate. It is prepared like this: 50 g of garlic cloves and onions, chopped into gruel, pour 1 liter of boiling water, leave for a day, add a little liquid soap. To prevent pests from returning, do the treatment once a week. And if there are too many earwigs, spray the plants with "Fufanon", "Inta-Vir" or "Iskra" (according to the instructions).
HOW TO GET RID OF CARE IN THE GARDEN
A couple of years ago, these strange beetles with a tail, somewhat similar to cockroaches, appeared in a greenhouse with peppers. There was no escape from them, they were destroying the vegetables on the vine. The diet of this pest included stems, leaves and fruits of horticultural and horticultural crops. When an experienced gardener came to my dacha, he immediately recognized the pest and told me how to deal with it.
To get rid of earwigs, first of all, you need to put things in order - get rid of damp, littered with waste areas and felled trees. Move the compost heaps outside the garden. After all, it is there that these pests most often settle. Then spread wet rags and old cans over the area. Every other day, pick them up and pour boiling water over the assembled earwigs. Spray the beds with peppers (only the ground, not the plants!) Spray the onion-garlic concentrate.
It is prepared like this: 50 g of garlic cloves and onions, chopped into gruel, pour 1 liter of boiling water, leave for a day, add a little liquid soap. To prevent pests from returning, do the treatment once a week.
And if there are already too many pests, spray the plants with "Fufanon", "Inta-Vir" or "Iskra" (according to the instructions).