Fieldfare (Sorbaria) is an ornamental deciduous shrub belonging to the Pink family. The fieldfare is found in nature for a large part in Asia. The genus has about a dozen different species. Translated from Latin, the word "Sorbus" means "mountain ash". The plant received such an obvious name due to its similarity to the common mountain ash. Outwardly, both green representatives of the flora have many characteristics in common. As a cultural species, fieldfare became widespread only in the middle of the 18th century.
Description of the plant fieldfare
The plant is several meters high. The root system is highly developed and capable of producing many root suckers. Thanks to the long and branchy shoots, the adult shrub resembles solid thickets. The grayish shoots are geniculate-sinuous, and the leaves form from 9 to 13 pairs of serrate leaves. Peduncles seem to be covered with small snow-white flowers, which gather in pyramidal panicles. After flowering is complete, fruits are formed on the shoots of the shrub, which are called leaflets. When creating decorative landscape compositions, the shrub can be placed both separately from other plants and in group plantings. Also, the fieldfare looks great as a hedge and serves as a natural frame for living reservoirs in the garden.
Planting fieldfare in open ground
Such events are carried out with the arrival of spring, before the process of sap flow begins in the bushes and trees, or after the end of autumn leaf fall. Fieldfare grows well in the shade, and also tolerates growing on heavy loams or in wet soil.
The bushes are placed in pre-prepared holes dug to a depth of 0.5 m. If you want to organize a group planting, then it is important to take into account the distance between individual specimens of at least one meter. The shoots grow strongly over time, so the pit is covered with slate sheets from the inside to hold back the growth of the roots, and the bottom is covered with drainage material. A mixture of compost and earth is used as soil. The roots are lowered into the pit and the organic substrate is evenly distributed around the root collar. She must definitely look out a few centimeters. A couple of buckets of water are brought under each bush. Planting ends with mulching of the soil surface. This will help in the future to save time on loosening and get rid of weeds.
Cope with the cultivation of field ash will not be difficult even for novice gardeners. The first thing to take care of is maintaining a moist environment at all times. The soil is loosened, and the surface of the soil around the shrub is cleared of weeds. They also regularly carry out feeding and pruning of shoots to form a crown. The fieldfare needs abundant watering; during a drought without water, the plant may die.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Fertilization is carried out at least 2 times during the season. Top dressing is distributed over the surface or buried near the roots. It is allowed to use organic types of fertilizers - compost or humus, alternating from time to time with mineral compositions, so that both the root system and foliage develop evenly.
Inflorescences that have lost their attractiveness are removed in order to preserve the overall decorative effect of the bush. In the spring, sanitization is carried out, cutting off diseased, dried or, conversely, shoots thickening the bush. This thinning prevents the formation of brittle and weak branches, and also maintains the shape of the crown. Ryabinnik also responds well to rejuvenating haircuts.
Often, the transplantation process is carried out simultaneously with the division of the shrub. For this, the plant is transferred to a new pit containing the same drainage layer and a fertile substrate enriched with compost or humus. The fieldfare rhizome is divided into several parts, leaving a healthy shoot in each of them. The places of the cuts are treated with crushed coal, and the finished cuttings are seated in different pits. If the cultivation of fieldfare is not a primary task, then the bush is allowed to be transplanted as a whole, without dividing the root system, adhering to the same sequence of actions as during the initial planting.
Dividing a bush is considered the most reliable breeding method. Growing a shrub from seed usually does not produce the desired results. Layers or cuttings can also be used as planting material. To grow fieldfare with the help of a layering, the longest shoot is chosen and pressed with that side to the soil on which the green buds are located. The shoot is lightly sprinkled with earth, without touching the top of the head. During the summer season, the cuttings are watered abundantly. Rooting is very fast. In autumn, the matured cuttings are separated from the main bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
Cuttings are carried out using lignified shoots, cutting off their tops with a length of 20 to 30 cm. The finished cuttings are transferred to a box filled with substrate. It is important to ensure that the soil in the box does not dry out. If the tops of the cuttings begin to grow, then the procedure was successful.
Diseases and pests
The vegetative parts of the plant are impregnated with phytoncides, so the fieldfare has increased resistance to the effects of many pests. However, occasionally the bushes are affected by spider mites or green aphids, which suck out cell juices from the shoots. As a result, the shrub turns yellow and loses its attractiveness. Instances affected by the viral mosaic must be incinerated immediately. In the fight against pests, chemical solutions Mitaka or Fitoverma are used.
After flowering, fallen leaves and dry flowers are collected. The fieldfare is able to withstand severe frosts, so it is allowed not to cover the bushes before wintering.
Types and varieties of fieldfare
Among the cultivated species, there are only 4 species of fieldfare.
Felt fieldfare - is a tall, non-flowering shrub, the origin of which began in the eastern regions of Asia. It is found on mountain slopes and shows a tendency to freezing.
Tree-like fieldfare - has similar features as the previous species of fieldfare, however, it is able to bloom and withstand the cold. Shoots are growing slowly.
Fieldfare of Pallas -Can be seen in the middle of the mountainous regions of Transbaikalia or the Far East. This deciduous flowering shrub reaches a height of just over a meter. Brown bare shoots covered with short yellow hairs. In old bushes, the bark flakes off over time. The surface of the leaf blades is slightly pubescent. Leaves grow up to 15 cm in length. The diameter of white or cream colored flowers is no more than 15 mm. They form small apical panicles. The fieldberry fruit is a pubescent leaflet. The plant shows resistance to frosty winters.
Rowan-leaved fieldberry - is considered one of the most common species in Asia and the Far East. It even grows in Japan. The shrub is of medium height and grayish-brown erect shoots. The shape of the leaves is pointed. In the spring, young leaves acquire a pink tint, in the summer months they are repainted in a rich light green color, and in the fall the bush tries on a fiery red outfit. The flowers exude a pleasant aroma and gather in cone-shaped lush paniculate inflorescences, reaching a length of no more than 30 cm. Inside each calyx are tiny stamens. In place of withered flowers, a pitcher-like fruit is formed in the form of accrete leaflets.
Fieldfare Sam - a plant that is rarely found in wildlife. The shrub is quite compact and visually attractive. Green shoots have a characteristic yellow tint, the surface of the leaves with a copper overflow. Snow-white inflorescences form panicles. To preserve the rich color of the leaves, it is necessary to organize additional lighting near the shrub.
All about growing fieldfare How to plant and grow fieldfare How to grow fieldfare
Amur waxwing: description of the bird, its behavior and distribution zones
Many have seen beautiful ornate birds, waxwings. About them and their habits were written in detail in the article “Waxwing is a bird with a tuft on its head. Drunk waxwings. " I was interested in the comment to this article, which talks about waxwings with a red, not yellow, stripe on the tail, i.e. Amur waxwings.
Amur waxwing, photo from the site http://www.rbcu.ru/
Amursky, or Japanese, waxwing (Bombycilla japonica) can be found in the Amur region and in the northern part of Primorye. This bird from the Sparrow-like order (Wyristele family) also lives on the territory of the Khabarovsk Territory. Visits Sakhalin. Wandering birds (listed as a migratory species in the Russian Bird Identifier) can often be found in forests where cedars and larch trees grow. These birds are also found in eastern Yakutia. In winter, the Amur waxwing is seen in Japan, Taiwan, eastern China and Korea.
Some ornithologists note that the zone of distribution of the Amur waxwing has not been definitively determined. The time and place of winter stay strongly depends on the amount of food: the fruits of honeysuckle, hawthorn, mistletoe berries, etc. Interesting is the opinion of V. Kolbin, the author of the article "Waxwing", which was published in the journal "Science and Life". Here is an excerpt from it:
Another species of waxwings lives in the Far East of Russia - the Amur waxwing, or Japanese. The last name is not justified - the entire nesting area of the bird is within Russia - it is our endemic. Outwardly, the Amur waxwing differs little from the ordinary one. Perhaps even more beautiful - the yellow color of the specks on the tips of the tail feathers and on the wings is replaced with red, and the wings themselves are blue. During the years of work in the Komsomolsk reserve of the Khabarovsk Territory, I often had to see mixed flocks of ordinary and Amur waxwings - this is a colorful sight.
The Amur waxwing is even less studied than the common one.
Amur waxwings are smaller than waxwings from Central Russia. This bird has not "pinkish-gray, but reddish-brown with a wine tinge" plumage. The qualifier "Birds of Russia" (authors Norman Arlott and Vladimir the Brave) gives the following description of the Amur waxwing:
The throat and stripe running from the beak to the eye are black, the forehead and cheeks are reddish. The undertail is chestnut. There is a large crest on his head. There is a narrow red stripe on the wing. A transverse red stripe at the end of the tail. The bill and legs are black. In the female, the plumage is slightly paler. Young birds are like a female.
Similar to the waxwing, but slightly smaller. It differs from the waxwing in the red tops of the tail feathers and in the red color on the wings. The voice is a subtle melodic whistle.
It is this red (and not yellow) stripe on the tail that can be considered an important distinguishing feature of the Amur waxwings. How rare this bird is can be judged by the fact that the Amur waxwing is included in the Red Book. More precisely, the International Red Book of Asia and the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, IUCN). Guard status - a state close to threatening.
Bird watchers observing the Amur waxwings describe some interesting details. For example, a male, caring for a female, offers her a berry or an ant's egg. After that, the female gives her consent to further "relationship" or refuses to the boyfriend.
I wonder if anyone has seen Amur waxwings? Where and when? Is there even the slightest chance to meet these birds with a red stripe on the tail in Central Russia?
Western and Eastern Siberia, Japan, China (Manchuria), Mongolia, Korea
banks of rivers and streams, undergrowth of sparse coniferous and mixed forests, edges, edges of bogs
grows strongly in width, often forming thickets due to numerous shoots
branches are strictly vertical, slightly branched
shallow, widely spread, produces many root suckers
easily tolerates a transplant, quickly takes root, forming developed bushes in the 3rd year
easily propagates by cuttings, rooting rate 100% when treated with rooting stimulants
remove old and weak branches in early spring
well tolerates haircuts, suitable for molded hedges with a height of 0.5-0.8 m
late June-early July autumn
young shoots glabrous or thinly pubescent, green, later light gray-brown, old ones with brownish-gray bark and numerous lenticels
pointed ovate, about 1 cm long, green, bloom in early spring
alternate, odd-pinnate, up to 27 cm long and 13 cm wide, of 9-21 (usually 17) lanceolate pointed leaves 2.5-10 cm long and 1-3 cm wide, double-serrate, sessile, rounded or wide-wedge-shaped at the base, bottom along veins pubescent with simple and stellate yellow hairs; stipules lanceolate, pointed, dentate or entire
pinkish in spring, then pale green, in summer light green
yellow or dark carmine red
in Moscow blooms from early June to early August 35 days
flowers are white, five-petal, small, 7-11 mm in diameter
inflorescences are terminal, pyramidal, paniculate, 10-30 cm long and 5-12 cm wide, quickly lose their decorative effect when flowering and need to be removed
inconspicuous pubescent leaflets 5 mm long, with a very short, outwardly bent spout
The fieldfare is not only very decorative, but also widely used for medicinal purposes. My dear fellow countryman V.V. Telyat'ev in his book "Healing Treasures" noted many medicinal properties of this plant. He wrote: “... The grass and flowers of fieldfare contain phenylethylamine, traces of coumarins and flavonoids: astragalin, hyperoside, quercetin-3-gluuronide, quercetin-3-xyloside, kaempferol-3-xyloside and tripoline. The flavonoids sorbifolin and scutellarin are found in the leaves of fieldfare. After fermentation, an essential oil containing methyl salicylin and salicylic aldehyde was isolated from fresh roots of fieldfare. " (Glyzin. 1969 Zaitsev et al. 1969 Goryaev. 1952).
Fieldfare is used in folk medicine as an antirheumatic agent in the form of an aqueous infusion of flowers inside, in the form of baths from a decoction of a flowering plant.
Fieldfare decoction is also used for internal bleeding, nose and uterine bleeding.
The roots of the plant are used for diarrhea, pulmonary tuberculosis.
The bark and leaves of fieldfare are used for gynecological diseases, articular rheumatism, gastrointestinal diseases and as an antihelminthic (Schrötter. 1975).
In the experiment, it was found that the extracts of fieldberry leaves and flowers inhibit the central nervous system and increase blood clotting.
In everyday life, I often use herbal tea from faded field brooms as rinses for tonsillitis, as well as a vitamin and general tonic in our long Siberian winters. It helps.
Try to grow a fieldberry in the garden to use its gifts.
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